Second-rower Parling, who missed the opening Test against Australia after suffering a mild concussion in training, joins his four club colleagues among the England replacements.
Tom Youngs and Dan Cole, who both started the win over Australia last Saturday, make way for Dylan Hartley and David Wilson in the front row, while half-backs Ben Youngs and Toby Flood are again included on the bench.
Hooker Tom Youngs has returned to the England camp after his wife gave birth to a baby daughter this week.
England bring in Joe Marler at loosehead in place of Mako Vunipola, and Ben Foden comes in on the wing in place of Marland Yarde. Chirstian Wade and Marland Yarde failed fitness checks and miss out.
Argentina include Leicester duo Marcos Ayerza and Pablo Matera in the forward pack, with former Tigers players Lucas Amorosino (now at Oyonnax in France) and Horacio Agulla (Bath Rugby) in the backline.
15 Mike Brown (Harlequins)
14 Chris Ashton (Saracens)
13 Joel Tompkins (Saracens)
12 Billy Twelvetrees (Gloucester Rugby )
11 Ben Foden (Northampton Saints)
10 Owen Farrell (Saracens)
9 Lee Dickson (Northampton Saints)
1 Joe Marler (Harlequins)
2 Dylan Hartley (Northampton Saints)
3 David Wilson (Bath Rugby)
4 Joe Launchbury (London Wasps)
5 Courtney Lawes (Northampton Saints)
6 Tom Wood (Northampton Saints)
7 Chris Robshaw (Harlequins)(c)
8 Billy Vunipola (Saracens)
16 Tom Youngs (Leicester Tigers)
17 Alex Corbisiero (Northampton Saints)
18 Dan Cole (Leicester Tigers
19 Geoff Parling (Leicester Tigers)
20 Ben Morgan (Gloucester Rugby)
21 Ben Youngs (Leicester Tigers)
22 Toby Flood (Leicester Tigers)
23 Alex Goode (Saracens)
Argentina: 15 Lucas González Amorosino, 14 Horacio Agulla, 13 Marcelo Bosch, 12 Santiago Fernández, 11 Juan Imhoff, 10 Nicolás Sanchez, 9 Tomas Cubelli; 1 Marcos Ayerza, 2 Eusebio Guiñazú, 3 Maximiliano Bustos, 4 Patricio Albacete, 5 Mariano Galarza, 6 Julio Farias Cabello, 7 Pablo Matera, 8 Juan Manuel Leguizamón (c)
Replacements: 16 Santiago Iglesias Valdez, 17 Nahuel Lobo, 18 Juan Pablo Orlandi, 19 Manuel Carizza, 20 Benjamín Macome, 21 Martin Landajo, 22 Gonzalo Tiesi, 23 Santiago Cordero